The Y chromosomes contain only a few genes, while X chromosome has more than genes. Even a small deletion or addition of autosomal material—too small to be seen by normal karyotyping methods—can produce serious malformations and intellectual disability.
These variations could be due to the fact that the sequences studied were introns, and so may have been affected strongly by selection. Temporal stability of molecular diversity measures in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila persimilis. Heterogeneous patterns of variation among multiple human X-linked loci the possible role of diversity-reducing selection in non-Africans.
Ancient male recombination shaped genetic diversity of neo-Y chromosome in Drosophila albomicans. Population size changes reshape genomic patterns of diversity.
Polygenic Risk Scores. The maintenance of separate sex chromosomes is, in itself, a form of frequency-dependent selection reviewed in Charlesworth [ ]. Interspecific Y chromosome introgressions disrupt testis-specific gene expression and male reproductive phenotypes in Drosophila. The effect of nonindependent mate pairing on the effective population size.
Can a sex-biased human demography account for the reduced effective population size of chromosome X in non-Africans?
Both sex-independent and sex-biased demography will affect neutral diversity on the sex chromosomes Box 3; fig. An unbiased resource of novel SNP markers provides a new chronology for the human Y chromosome and reveals a deep phylogenetic structure in Africa.
A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture. A new plant sex-linked gene with high sequence diversity and possible introgression of the X copy. Sex determination in flowering plants.
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
Finding the factors of reduced genetic diversity on X chromosomes of Macaca fascicularis : male-driven evolution, demography, and natural selection. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Convergent evolution of chromosomal sex-determining regions in the animal and fungal kingdoms. It is not yet clear whether this trend is due to high variance in male reproductive success, natural selection acting on the nonrecombining Y chromosome, or both.
In humans, there are 46 or 23 pairs of chromosomes, out of which 22 pairs are autosomes, and a pair is the sex chromosomes or allosomes.