Johnston v. But the story of St. Other more concrete examples reveal that where the equal pay principle butted up against other labor aims--particularly protecting the jobs of male members--most unions showed little or no interest in challenging sex-based wage differentials or the sexual division of labor more broadly.
For her part, St. For perspective on conceptions of privacy under the Fourth and Fifth Amendments during the second half of the nineteenth century and the first part of the twentieth, see Ken I. In the end, Judge Hayden's initial ruling barring any documentary discovery would give way.
The resulting midcentury clash of collectivist visions should be central to any causal account of the modern class action's emergence going forward. John's lawsuit and the legislative struggles over pay equity that followed also offer overwhelming evidence that an entirely different factor powerfully shaped the new pay equity laws and, with it, the evolution of the modern class action.
The fiftieth anniversary of the amendments to Rule 23 has occasioned a new set of historiographic contributions that focus, as does this Article, on roads taken and not taken, but those contributions concentrate on and the years following.
English Choose a language for shopping. Ithaca: Cornell University Press,pp. Get to Know Us. Go ahead and try to steal it, he can use the publicity. After the war, many of them increased their activism in making workplaces safe, fair, and hospitable for women. Later, all feminists were behind ERA, but in the beginning, the factory girls and servers felt it was a Republican ruse for allowing employers to circumvent the real issues of industrial democracy, wages, and job security they fought for in statehouses and at the collective bargaining table.
January 1, Katie Hanna. American feminism has always been about more than the struggle for individual rights and equal treatment with men.
Indeed, during the Eighty-Second through Eighty-Sixth Congresses, a period spanning , some seventy-two bills were introduced, but no hearings were held, and no bills were reported out of committee. Addison, 2 N. See generally Engstrom, supra note 11 recounting the midcentury drive by civil rights groups to establish state-level FEPCs.
As Mary Anderson explained in a memo to NWLB Chairman William Davis in , "legal action" in court was "expensive and since it would not result in an increase in the employee's current rate but only in restitution of back wages, such an action is not practical where small amounts are involved.
SecGM Brief, supra note 85, at "[T]he claimants received different wages, worked in different departments and performed different duties, and the same is true as to the men. The potency of such an argument had become clear even before GM's opening statement.