Reconstructing sex chromosome evolution of humans in Independence

This results in an expected maximum male—female F ST of 0. Innan, H. Consistent with this, strata were first observed in comparisons of divergence of X—Y orthologs in therian mammals which clustered into several clear categories spatially across the chromosome Lahn and Page Evidence from mammals suggests that the elimination of recombination might be achieved through chromosomal inversions on the proto-sex chromosomes 1238 Graves J.

Citing articles via Web of Science 3. Two primary paths to survival have occurred on the Y chromosome.

reconstructing sex chromosome evolution of humans in Independence

Thus, Y chromosomes are expected to accumulate deleterious mutations, and incorporate fewer beneficial mutations. Veyrunes F, et al. Although this does not act to change which chromosome is the sex chromosome, it has important implications for turnover between XY and ZW determination systems.

Chromosomal evolution and speciation: a recombination-based approach: Research review.

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Chromosome-level assembly of the common lizard Zootoca vivipara genome. Beneficial mutations of weak effect can become uncoupled from linked, strongly deleterious mutations by recombination on the X chromosome, and fix in the population.

Teitz, L. We conclude that functional isolation is associated with relaxed purifying selection on the genes related to that function, potentially through relief from background selection acting on more highly conserved linked sites Four evolutionary strata on the human X chromosome.

Due to the strong positive skew of several variables in our dataset, generalized linear models GLM were used where appropriate for hypotheis testing. For example, are amplicons unique to primates, or do they enable survival of Y-linked genes in other taxonomic groups as well?

Given the importance and conservation of sexual phenotypes, we might expect the genetic basis of sex determination itself to be highly conserved.

Reconstructing sex chromosome evolution of humans in Independence

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  • Human sex chromosome evolution was probably punctuated by at least four events, each suppressing X-Y recombination in one stratum, without disturbing gene order on the X chromosome. Independently and concurrently, the avian Z and W chromosomes (ZZ males, ZW females) evolved from a different pair of autosomes that was present in the same ancestor. Both the mammalian XY pair and the avian ZW pair have emerged with specialized and disproportionate roles in Cited by: 4.
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  • Oct 28,  · "The reconstruction of the defining events of human sex-chromosome evolution is analogous to the reconstruction of the evolution of species, except that we are looking at changes of a pair of chromosomes over geologic time rather than changes of whole organisms," says Lahn. Apr 21,  · It is clear that sex chromosomes have evolved independently numerous times and turnover from one system to another frequently (Bachtrog et al. ). This diversity has made it possible to test empirically the rich body of evolutionary theory that predicts each stage of sex chromosome by: 6.
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  • Jan 30,  · In humans, while the X chromosome maintains a large number of genes similar to all the other non-sex chromosomes, the poor male-associated Y has been shriveling up . Human sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes. Nineteen ancestral autosomal genes persist as differentiated homologs on the X and Y chromosomes. The ages of individual X-Y gene pairs (measured by nucleotide divergence) and the locations of their X members on the X chromosome were found to be highly correlated. Age decreased in stepwise fashion from the distal long arm to the distal short arm in.
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  • Apr 23,  · Sex determination mechanisms often differ even between related species yet the evolution of sex chromosomes remains poorly understood in all but a few model organisms. Some nematodes such as. Jul 03,  · Determining the order and orientation of conserved chromosome segments in the genomes of extant mammals is important for understanding speciation events, and the lineage-specific adaptations that have occurred during ∼ My of mammalian evolution. In this paper, we describe the computational reconstruction of chromosome organization for seven ancestral genomes leading to human.
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